Toward an even greener Indonesia 2030: technical support for plans that work
To meet its commitment to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, Indonesia, which is the world’s third-biggest emitter, has been working hard to learn how to plan and implement reductions, with support from the World Agroforestry Centre.
At a national workshop called, Towards a Green Indonesia 2030, recently held in Jakarta on 14 June 2017, Medrilzam, director of Environment at the Ministry of Development Planning (Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan/Bappenas), stated that, ‘Climate change for developing countries is not just about environmental issues but is closely related to economic development and poverty alleviation in accordance with the principles of sustainable development.
‘Two important pillars to support a low-emission economy are development plans and strategies that ensure fairness and efficiency for all and participatory monitoring and evaluation of land-use planning by multiple stakeholders to ensure legitimacy, success and sustainability of the low-emission development strategy’.
For the last four years, ICRAF The World Agroforestry Centre has been helping create such plans, strategies and participatory monitoring in collaboration with local governments in the provinces of Papua and South Sumatra. Supported by the Danish International Development Agency and the European Union, respectively, the Locally Appropriate Mitigation Action in Indonesia (LAMA-I) and Participatory Monitoring by Civil Society of Land-use Planning for Low-emission Development (ParCiMon) projects have provided technical support for participatory, ‘green’ development planning to six district governments: Banyuasin, Musi Banyuasin and Musi Rawas in South Sumatra province; and Jayapura, Merauke and Jayawijaya in Papua province.
As part of the technical support, ICRAF worked with the district governments and communities to create purpose-built software—Information System for Sustainable Land Resource Development (INSTANT) and Land-use Planning for Multiple Environment Services (LUMENS).
The districts successfully produced low-emission development plans that have been incorporated into the two provinces’ regional mid-term development plans. The three districts in Papua went one step further and also created principles, criteria and indicators for monitoring and evaluating the various elements of low-emission development, such as green investments and economic growth, sustainable land-use planning, improved community livelihoods, protection of biodiversity, and well-functioning watersheds.
‘These achievements at district level are important regional contributions to achieving the national targets that are be compiled by Bappenas. They are part of national development planning’, said Suyanto (many Indonesians have only one name), the coordinator of the LAMA-I and ParCiMon projects. ‘Lessons learned from these activities are very useful for the government when implementing programs related to climate-change mitigation and the green economy’.
At the end of 2016, the Government of Indonesia had submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution document to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The document committed Indonesia to reduce its carbon emissions by 29% through its own effort—and 41% with international support—by 2030 while also achieving 7% annual economic growth. The commitment was confirmed through promulgation of Law no. 16/2016 on the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which states that reduction of carbon emissions is a necessity and that support to achieve the target is indispensable.
However, various problems are faced by the government to make the commitment a reality. One of them is its own Presidential Regulation no. 61/2011 on the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction, which was based on the National Mid-Term Development Plan 2010–2014. This plan has been completed and a new one created for 2015–2019.
‘The regulation was made before the Paris Agreement in 2015’, explained Medrilzam. ‘If we read it carefully, the action plan is only to be implemented up until 2020. If we are to overcome the rapidly changing dynamics of the climate, this policy needs to be improved’.
Mainstreaming of mitigation action plans into government policy, as has been done through LAMA-I and ParCiMon, is an important part of green development planning that helps not only improve policies but also really achieve targets for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. Disclosure of information, multi-stakeholder participation, and goodwill are key aspects that enable mitigation action plans to be created and effectively implemented with appropriate government budgeting supported by private and international support.
This work is linked to the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry. ICRAF The World Agroforestry Centre is one of the 15 members of the CGIAR, a global partnership for a food-secure future. We would like to thank all donors who support research in development through their contributions to the CGIAR Fund.