Reducing emissions from Jambi province, Indonesia, through ‘nested’ plans
Governments at all levels in Indonesia have to reduce greenhouse emissions to meet national targets. Scientists are helping them integrate their plans
By Bonie Dewantara and Atiek Widayati
Within the context of reducing emissions globally, Indonesia promulgated a National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK) through Presidential Decree No. 61/2011, which features sub-national initiatives with various dynamics.
Provincial governments are tasked with creating Locally Appropriate Mitigation Action Plans for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (RAD-GRK). For example, Jambi province responded promptly with a Governor’s Regulation—no. 36/2012—to establish such a plan.
To accelerate the formulation of RAD-GRKs at the district-and-city (‘kabupaten dan kota’) level and help with the revision of provincial RAD-GRKs so that they are more realistic and focused on overcoming challenges, the World Agroforestry Centre’s Indonesia program through the Secured Landscapes project, which is funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, has been providing technical assistance to, and strengthening the capacity of, government bodies in Jambi.
As part of these activities, a training workshop, Reference Emission Level (REL) Calculation for the RAD-GRK from the Land-based Sector, was held in Bandung, West Java, in June 2014 in collaboration with Jambi Provincial Development Planning Agency (Bappeda) and the Biodiversity Protection through Community Forest Management project, which is funded by the Margaret A. Cargill Foundation.
The workshop built a common understanding and commitment among the districts and cities in Jambi to develop RAD-GRKs—including conducting monitoring, evaluation and reporting—that would be integrated, low-emission development plans. Trainees consisted of representatives from Bappeda and forestry offices from all the districts and cities in Jambi as well as from the provincial government.
The training began with an introduction by Dr Sonya Dewi, country coordinator of the World Agroforestry Centre Indonesia program, followed by the official opening by Ammar Solahuddin of Bappeda Jambi. Introductory remarks was also made by Pungky Widiaryanto of Bappenas, the national development planning agency, who discussed the implementation of RAD-GRKs; monitoring, evaluation and reporting; progress of the process to date; and sources of funding for activities.
During the week-long course, all district and city representatives calculated their area’s greenhouse-gas emissions, defined the reference emission levels and designed mitigation action plans using data that had been prepared in advance. The benefit of using original data owned by each district and city was that the calculations and analyses would have legitimacy and accuracy for further development of the RAD-GRK documents.
At the end of the workshop, Dr Atiek Widayati, coordinator of the Secured Landscapes project in Indonesia, emphasized that through partnerships with government and non-government bodies, the World Agroforestry Centre Indonesia will continue to support activities that help to mitigate climate change in the land-based sector, such as the ‘nested’ action plans in Jambi province.
An important, forthcoming output from the training workshop will be a comparison of reference emission levels calculated for each district and city and, finally, the entire province. The comparison is intended to provide an overview of the best way to connect districts, cities and provinces when planning mitigation actions and mechanisms for monitoring, evaluating and reporting. A critical issue in this comparison is whether provincial authorities’ role will be collecting and compiling the reference emission levels calculated for each district and city or whether the reference emission level will be established at the provincial level first, with districts and cities providing elaboration based on their areas.
The overall assessments, discussions and problem-solving alternatives from the workshop will become important documentation towards systematic, institutional greenhouse-gas emission reductions in districts and cities, the essential components of the provincial RAD-GRK in Jambi.
Aligned with this capacity-strengthening workshop, several other activities have been initiated by the World Agroforestry Centre and the Bappeda offices in Jambi, covering aspects such as increasing awareness among participating institutions, synergies across sectors and participants and reconciliation with formal land-use planning and environmental-assessment instruments.
In Jambi’s case, where technical competence, institutional capacity and implementation opportunities exist and the RAD-GRK initiatives are up and running, a big program of emission reductions could become a ‘flagship’ program of a district or city. Response Actions for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (‘SIGAP EMISI’) could potentially be a lesson from Jambi province in how to institutionalize the reduction of emissions without reducing economic growth.
An important element in RAD-GRK preparations in Jambi is support from provincial, district and city administrations in the form of institutional development and regulations, not just technical support, for the many stakeholders in each district and city. This was clearly expressed by the participants during the workshop. Integration along the vertical axes between districts, cities and the province was also considered important so that institutional relationships will be coordinated.
Further recommendations from the workshop touched upon the need to elaborate local action plans in all districts and cities based on spatial and development plans. For the provincial RAD-GRK, further work was needed to sharpen provincial initiatives by taking into account district and city contexts, targeting realistic and achievable reductions and incorporating the principle of ‘emission-reduction nesting’. With regards to the reference emission level calculation results and the technical descriptions used in district and city RAD-GRK documents, review and, eventually, support through public consultation will be essential for the legitimacy of the plans.
This work is linked to the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry